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1930 US Federal Census Data Skowhegan

Data extracted by members of the Colby College Maine Jewish History Project research team (2011), directed by David M. Freidenreich

DMJ NumSurnamefirst nameHouse NumberaddressO/R Value/RentServant/BoarderrelationageAge at 1st MarrstudentPOB personPOB fatherPOB mothermother tongueYOIcitizenoccupationEmployed?sheet #districtward
 LipmanSamuel32Cowett StreetO-2,700 head5530 RussiaRussiaRussiaYiddish1900noJunk Dealeryes25B13-78 
 LipmanEster N32Cowett Street  wife4818 RussiaRussiaRussiaYiddish1900no  25B13-78 
 LipmanBarney H32Cowett Street  son20 yesMassachusettsRussiaRussia     25B13-78 
 LipmanHarold32Cowett Street  son19 yesMassachusettsRussiaRussia   Junk Dealeryes25B13-78 
 LipmanFrank J32Cowett Street  son15 yesMassachusettsRussiaRussia   News boy-daily paperyes25B13-78 
 LipmanSidney C32Cowett Street  son13 yesMassachusettsRussiaRussia   News boy-daily paperyes25B13-78 
 LipmanBeueby F32Cowett Street  daughter10 yesMaineRussiaRussia      13-78 
 GoldbergJacob S40Marlton Street ?0-1,500 head5021 RussiaRussiaRussiaHebrew1890yesjunk dealeryes5B13-78 
 GoldbergCelia40Marlton Street ?  wife3828 PolandPolandPolandHebrew1914yes  5B13-78 
 GoldbergLeo40Marlton Street ?  son9 yesMaineRussiaPoland     5B13-78 
 GoldbergBeatrice G40Marlton Street ?  daughter6 yesMassachusettsRussiaPoland     5B13-78

Methodological notes :

This data was culled from the original U.S. census manuscripts, as found on
Jews are understood to constitute an ethnic group of Eastern and Central European origin characterized by common names and occupational pursuits, as well as a distinctive language.
This definition lends itself well to analysis of the data preserved in census records.
Two primary methods were used to identify Jews:
1. Individuals born abroad whose mother tongue is "Yiddish," "Jewish," or "Hebrew" were automatically included in the spreadsheet, as were all members of their families.
2. For individuals born abroad whose mother tongue was another Eastern or Central European language (e.g., Russian, Polish, German), or individuals born in the U.S. with one or more parents from Eastern or Central Europe, we examined surnames, given names within a household, and occupations in light of common Jewish characteristics. This method of analysis is, of course, subject to inaccuracy, as we may have excluded Jews with uncommon names or occupations or included non-Jews whose characteristics appear Jewish. Individuals listed with the annotation "nj?" in the far right-hand column are those whose Jewish ancestry is plausible but questionable.
This method of analysis easily misses Jewish households whose members' parents were all born in the United States. In 1930 Maine, however, such households were quite rare. Special efforts were made to identify households of this nature in Portland, where they constituted less than 1% of identified Jewish households.
All members of a household containing a Jew are included in the spreadsheet, with the exception of Jewish lodgers and servants, who are listed individually. Household members who are evidently not Jewish (such as non-Jewish servants and some spouses or in-laws) are listed with the annotation "nj."
Information on place of birth
Some people replied with the name of the place when they left; others replied with the name of place when the census was taken; in other cases it just seems that it was easier for the census taker to write ‘Russia’ rather than Lithuania, Ukraine or other unfamiliar country names.
And there is another reason to be skeptical of the accuracy of the place of birth information. Immigrants from the Pale had a very justified fear of the Russian and often local governments. One way to manage this reality was to tell government representatives what they expected they wanted to hear or what they thought would bring them the least trouble. This may well explain why a number of family members, who were clearly from Eastern Europe, may have answered ‘Maine’ or ‘New York’.

Last Updated : Jan 2 , 2021

Thank you to the Colby College Maine Jewish History Project (2011) for the information