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1920 US Federal Census Data Gardiner
Where one member of the family was an East European immigrant Data extracted by DMJ consultants (2020)

Nameest date of birthplace of birthmarriage statusrelation to head of householdaddressoccupationindustry
Sarah Cohen1892RussiaMarriedWifeWinter Street  
Samuel Cohen1887RussiaMarriedHeadWinter StreetCobblerShoe Factory
Jacob Cohen1919MaineSingleSonWinter Street  
Jacob A Canter1872RussiaMarriedHead260 Water StreetMerchantClothing
Augusta G Canter1872RussiaMarriedWife260 Water Street  
Benjamin M Canter1897MaineSingleSon260 Water Street  
Harriet F Canter1899MaineSingleDaughter260 Water Street  
Edward A Canter1900MaineSingleSon260 Water Street  
Milton W Canter1902MaineSingleSon260 Water Street  
Abraham Glazier1903RussiaSingleSonWinter Street  
Harry Glazier1880RussiaMarriedHeadWinter StreetRetail MerchantDry Goods
Jennie Glazier1883RussiaMarriedWifeWinter Street  
Simon Glazier1906MaineSingleSonWinter Street  
Leo Glazier1908MaineSingleSonWinter Street  
Oscar Glazier1910MaineSingleSonWinter Street  
Jacob S Brisk1863RussiaMarriedHead16 Treemont StKettle Dealer 
Rachel Brisk1874RussiaMarriedWife16 Treemont St  
Mannie Brisk1892MassachusettsSingleSon16 Treemont St  
Sadie Brisk1898MaineSingleDaughter16 Treemont StTeacherPublic Schools
Abraham Brisk1899MaineSingleSon16 Treemont StStudent 
Philip Brisk1901MaineSingleSon16 Treemont StStudent 
Anna Ross1875RussiaMarriedWife11 Middle Street  
Abraham Ross1875RussiaMarriedHead11 Middle StreetBottles soft drinksOwn Shop
Bennie Ross1904RussiaSingleSon11 Middle Street  
Morris Ross1905RussiaSingleSon11 Middle Street  
Arl Wolman1867RussiaMarriedHead28 Maine AvenueKeeperHotel
Bessie Wolman1868RussiaMarriedWife28 Maine Avenue  
Lena C Wolman1900MaineSingleDaughter28 Maine Avenue  
Charles K Wolman1902MaineSingleDaughter28 Maine Avenue  
George Ross MaineSingleBoarder28 Maine Avenue  
Samuel Naiman1871RussiaMarriedHead25 Highland AvenuePeddlerProduce
Ida Naiman1874RussiaMarriedWifeSummer Street  
Frank Naiman1896MaineSingleSonSummer StreetLasterShoe Factory
Harry Naiman1900MassachusettsSingleSonSummer StreetLaborerGeneral
George Naiman1902MassachusettsSingleSonSummer Street  
Rose Naiman1911MaineSingleDaughterSummer Street  
Lewis Naiman1915MaineSingleSonSummer Street  
Max Levine1877RussiaMarriedHead11 Robinson StJunk DealerOwn Yard
Dora Levine1882RussiaMarriedWife11 Robinson St  
Mary Levine1907MaineSingleDaughter11 Robinson St  
Charles Levine1909MaineSingleSon11 Robinson St  
Maurice Slosberg1843RussiaMarriedHead40 Mechanic StreetPeddlerJunk and Rags
Fannie Slosberg1860RussiaMarriedWife40 Mechanic Street  
Abram Simon1920CanadaSingleGrandson40 Mechanic Street 

Methodological notes :

This data was culled from the original U.S. census manuscripts, as found on
Jews are understood to constitute an ethnic group of Eastern and Central European origin characterized by common names and occupational pursuits, as well as a distinctive language.
This definition lends itself well to analysis of the data preserved in census records.
Two primary methods were used to identify Jews:
1. Individuals born abroad whose mother tongue is "Yiddish," "Jewish," or "Hebrew" were automatically included in the spreadsheet, as were all members of their families.
2. For individuals born abroad whose mother tongue was another Eastern or Central European language (e.g., Russian, Polish, German), or individuals born in the U.S. with one or more parents from Eastern or Central Europe, we examined surnames, given names within a household, and occupations in light of common Jewish characteristics. This method of analysis is, of course, subject to inaccuracy, as we may have excluded Jews with uncommon names or occupations or included non-Jews whose characteristics appear Jewish. Individuals listed with the annotation "nj?" in the far right-hand column are those whose Jewish ancestry is plausible but questionable.
This method of analysis easily misses Jewish households whose members' parents were all born in the United States. In 1930 Maine, however, such households were quite rare. Special efforts were made to identify households of this nature in Portland, where they constituted less than 1% of identified Jewish households.
All members of a household containing a Jew are included in the spreadsheet, with the exception of Jewish lodgers and servants, who are listed individually. Household members who are evidently not Jewish (such as non-Jewish servants and some spouses or in-laws) are listed with the annotation "nj."
Information on place of birth
Some people replied with the name of the place when they left; others replied with the name of place when the census was taken; in other cases it just seems that it was easier for the census taker to write ‘Russia’ rather than Lithuania, Ukraine or other unfamiliar country names.
And there is another reason to be skeptical of the accuracy of the place of birth information. Immigrants from the Pale had a very justified fear of the Russian and often local governments. One way to manage this reality was to tell government representatives what they expected they wanted to hear or what they thought would bring them the least trouble. This may well explain why a number of family members, who were clearly from Eastern Europe, may have answered ‘Maine’ or ‘New York’.

Last Updated : Jan 2 , 2021

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