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1880 US Federal Census Data Waterville
Data extracted by the Colby Jewish History Project (2012)

Jews in Waterville in 1880

30102EhrenfriedAlbert A.[81] Middle StreetFeb 18804.5 months (born in February of census year)SonMainePrussiaPrussia   913ditto 
8706EhrenfriedGeorge[81] Middle Streetabt 184238HeadPrussiaPrussiaPrussia  Fancy Goods Dealer913ditto; family employed a first-generation Irish-American servant named Mary Cannaran 
38270EhrenfriedLinna[81] Middle Streetabt 18782DaughterMainePrussiaPrussia   913ditto 
38269EhrenfriedMartha[81] Middle Streetabt 18782DaughterMainePrussiaPrussia   913ditto 
30104EhrenfriedRachel[81] Middle Streetabt 185129WifePrussiaPrussiaPrussia  Keeping House913ditto 
38268EhrenfriedSilas[81] Middle Streetabt 18737SonMainePrussiaPrussia  At School913ditto 
17405GreenbergGilbert154 Lisbon Streetabt 185426SonPoland/PrussiaPoland/PrussiaPoland/Prussia   137immigrant 1867 
17409GreenbergIsaac154 Lisbon Streetabt 183248HeadPoland/PrussiaPoland/PrussiaPoland/Prussia  Merchant (Dry Goods )137immigrant 1867dies 27 Nov 1900; Polish father named Gilbert Greenberg
17410GreenbergMichael154 Lisbon Streetabt 185822SonPoland/PrussiaPoland/PrussiaPoland/Prussia   137immigrant 1867 
17411GreenbergThursey 154 Lisbon Streetabt 182555WifePoland/PrussiaPoland/PrussiaPoland/Prussia  Keeping House137Unable to read or write; mother of 3 living children; immigrated in 1867called Toba in 1900 census
38272RubenBellaNumber 41? - corner of Ash and Lisbon Streetsabt 18782DaughterMaineRussiaMassachusetts   118  
17490RubenBettseyNumber 41? - corner of Ash and Lisbon Streetsabt 185525WifeMassachusettsRussiaRussia  Keeping House118  
17491RubenSolomonNumber 41? - corner of Ash and Lisbon Streetsabt 185030HeadRussiaRussiaRussia  Fancy Goods Dealer118  
8961PulvermanWilliamcorner of Ash and Franklin 40HeadPrussiaPrussiaPrussia  ClothierWard 327$10,000 Real Estate and $4,000 Personal Estate 
38273PulvermanFannycorner of Ash and Franklinabt 184040Wifeblank in recordblank in recordblank in record  Keeping HouseWard 327  
38274PulvermanMaxcorner of Ash and Franklinabt 186515SonMainePrussiaPrussia  attending schoolWard 327  
38275PulvermanBroncorner of Ash and Franklinabt 186713SonMainePrussiaPrussia   Ward 327  
38276PulvermanAnnycorner of Ash and Franklinabt 186911DaughterMaineblank in recordblank in record   Ward 327  
 PulvermanAlonzocorner of Ash and Franklinabt 18719Sonblank in recordblank in recordblank in record       
 PulvermanTheodorecorner of Ash and Franklinabt 18746Sonblank in recordblank in recordblank in record       
 PulvermanMiniecorner of Ash and Franklinabt 18773Daughterblank in recordblank in recordblank in record      

Methodological notes :

This data was culled from the original U.S. census manuscripts, as found on
Jews are understood to constitute an ethnic group of Eastern and Central European origin characterized by common names and occupational pursuits, as well as a distinctive language.
This definition lends itself well to analysis of the data preserved in census records.
Two primary methods were used to identify Jews:
1. Individuals born abroad whose mother tongue is "Yiddish," "Jewish," or "Hebrew" were automatically included in the spreadsheet, as were all members of their families.
2. For individuals born abroad whose mother tongue was another Eastern or Central European language (e.g., Russian, Polish, German), or individuals born in the U.S. with one or more parents from Eastern or Central Europe, we examined surnames, given names within a household, and occupations in light of common Jewish characteristics. This method of analysis is, of course, subject to inaccuracy, as we may have excluded Jews with uncommon names or occupations or included non-Jews whose characteristics appear Jewish. Individuals listed with the annotation "nj?" in the far right-hand column are those whose Jewish ancestry is plausible but questionable.
This method of analysis easily misses Jewish households whose members' parents were all born in the United States. In 1930 Maine, however, such households were quite rare. Special efforts were made to identify households of this nature in Portland, where they constituted less than 1% of identified Jewish households.
All members of a household containing a Jew are included in the spreadsheet, with the exception of Jewish lodgers and servants, who are listed individually. Household members who are evidently not Jewish (such as non-Jewish servants and some spouses or in-laws) are listed with the annotation "nj."
Information on place of birth
Some people replied with the name of the place when they left; others replied with the name of place when the census was taken; in other cases it just seems that it was easier for the census taker to write ‘Russia’ rather than Lithuania, Ukraine or other unfamiliar country names.
And there is another reason to be skeptical of the accuracy of the place of birth information. Immigrants from the Pale had a very justified fear of the Russian and often local governments. One way to manage this reality was to tell government representatives what they expected they wanted to hear or what they thought would bring them the least trouble. This may well explain why a number of family members, who were clearly from Eastern Europe, may have answered ‘Maine’ or ‘New York’.

Last Updated : Jan 2 , 2021

Thank you to the Colby College Maine Jewish History Project (2011) and David M. Freidenreich for the information